Technology

Overview
The FemtoSmart Dual microscope contains both galvanometric and resonant scanners, providing all advantages of the two types of imaging technique. Using the two scanners function in tandem is a perfect solution for photo stimulation. The galvanometric scanner directs the laser to cells or subcellular components selectively. The selectivity is established by scanning along arbitrary line patterns placed on cell bodies or dendritic segments. With the resonant scanner, you can follow the changes in the cells of a neural network collecting imaging data simultaneously by high-speed frame scanning of the surrounding area. Timing of photo stimulation and gating of the detectors are controlled by protocols designed on user-friendly GUI.

Choose the best scanning mode which fits your imaging requirements

Multiple line scanning

Multiple line scanning has been developed for researchers who want to resolve dendritic and even spine activity of neurons approaching near real-time measurement mode. During this scanning mode, the X and Y mirrors of the galvo scanner direct the laser beam flexible along straight lines or complex curves. The scanner spends most of its time collecting signals from these lines, while the intermediate sections between the lines are skipped. In this way, the scanning speed and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the signals sampled from the multi-site ROIs increases 3- to 4-fold compared to frame scanning.

Folded frame scanning

This patented method enables imaging of a confined area along a line, where the shape of the selected regions can be straight or curved. This advanced scanning method is useful for imaging single cell bodies in different regions of the specimen, or following events along winding dendrites with their protrusions, even while the tissue is moving.

Time-lapse imaging even long time
The high frame scanning rate of the resonant scanner (31 fps) provides high temporal resolution on the entire field-of-view. This feature in combination with the unlimited video streaming and the possibility of automated measurements support following rapid events in living cells, neuronal networks, or other circuits during learning processes, memory retrieval, associative learning, developmental stadiums.

3D volume scanning
The fast XY-scanning, combined with fast Z-movement, ensures near real-time measurement of a 3D volume. In frame by frame Z ramping mode, the fast objective positioner (a Piezo objective positioner or Liquid lens objective kit) takes a step between each plane, and as result, parallel planes are scanned. In continuous Z ramping mode the fast objective positioner steps between each scanline, and as a result, slightly tilted planes are scanned. This scanning mode enables faster volume scanning rates for volumetric physiology imaging.

Using the two scanners function in tandem is a perfect solution for photostimulation

The galvanometric scanner directs the laser to cells or subcellular components selectively. The selectivity is established by scanning along arbitrary line patterns placed on cell bodies or dendritic segments. With the resonant scanner, you can follow the changes in the cells of a neural network collecting imaging data simultaneously by high-speed frame scanning of the surrounding area. Timing of photostimulation and gating of the detectors are controlled by protocols designed on user-friendly GUI.

Stimulation along ROIs using spiral scanning pattern with galvo scanner on ChR2 expressing neurons

Full field imaging by resonant scanner

Offline ROI selection

Calcium responses from the selected ROIs

Extreme positioning freedom. Superior imaging technology. High level of modularity. FemtoSmart.