Femto3D-RC is a piezo objective positioner equipped galvanometric scanner based microscope. This advanced system controlled by special RollerCoaster software ensures scanning along trajectories in the three-dimensional space.


Femto3D-RC is capable of collecting signals along several hundreds micrometers long dendrites from different depths fast enough to follow rapid events in the 3D biological sample.

  • imaging long dendritic segments (up to 250-300 µm)
  • resolution of individual spines
  • travelling range up to 400 µm
  • resonant frequency of the loaded piezo up to 500 Hz
  • millisecond step-and-settle


The 3D scanning modes of the Femto3D-RC microscope are controlled by the special RollerCoaster software. RollerCoaster controlled scanning uses fast sinusoidal driving of the objective positioner and it is insensitive to distortions of the actual objective path. The XY free line-scanning with galvanometric mirrors is specially synchronized to the nonlinear resonance of the z-axis movement of the objective. This approach yields a 3D trajectory matching the path of dendritic shafts and spines of neurons without limiting pixel dwell time. Available z-range depends on the resonanting frequency of piezo objective postioner (~scanning speed).

G. Katona, A. Kaszas, G. F. Turi, N. Hajos, G. Tamas, E.S. Vizi, B. Rozsa
Roller Coaster Scanning reveals spontaneous triggering of dendritic spikes in CA1 interneurons, PNAS (2011)



Upgrade your Femto2D-Galvo microscope with our RC hardware and software tools. The configuration will provide all advantages of the galvo system:
  • high signal-to-noise ratio
  • minimized optical path and effective photon collection
  • simultaneous measurement of 15-50 inputs
  • flexible ROI opportunities
  • lateral resolution 350 nm
  • in vivo deep imaging down to 850 µm



Astrocytic GABA transporter activity modulates excitatory neurotransmission. Boddum K, Jensen TP, Magloire V, Kristiansen U, Rusakov DA, Pavlov I, Walker MC, Nature Communications (2016)