Behavioral processes are paired with patterns of brain activation. Mapping the neural basis of a behavioral distinction, such as visuomotor learning, memory retrieval, associative learning or spatial navigation can be established by controlled multiform experimental manipulation. This can be a change in stimulus information, task instruction or reward and punishment which alter the underlying pattern of brain activation. Monitoring or evoking behavioral data and parallel imaging of neuronal circuits in a living animal’s brain can reveal the correspondence between changes at the cellular and behavioral levels.