Femto3D AcoustoOptic microscopes and Anti-motion technology

Surface and volume scanning possibilities supporting motion correction

Our Anti-motion scanning technology enables cell activity to be captured while an animal is moving in virtual reality and performing tasks. The acousto-optic drift scanning technology is useful for correcting tissue motions caused by behavior. To preserve signals, scanning points are extended to drifted lines which are precisely fitted to each other resulting surface or 3D volume elements. These elements cover not only the pre-selected ROIs but also the neighboring areas giving an opportunity to preserve all fluorescent information during motions and decrease the artefacts by more than one order of magnitude in behaving animals.

Surface and volume scanning possibilities supporting motion correction

The scanning modes using Anti-motion technology

The surface scanning methods are optimized for speed, while the methods based on volume imaging are optimized for large amplitude movements, maintaining the 10–1,000 Hz sampling rate necessary to resolve neural activity at the individual ROIs. Each scanning mode is useful for different neurobiological aims: ribbon scanning, snake scanning, 3D multiple line scanning are optimal for different dendritic measurements, while chessboard scanning and multi-cube scanning are best for somatic recordings.

3D network imaging by
cheesboard scanning

Extremely large space under the objective
FemtoSmart microscopes

The FemtoSmart product line was primarily developed to perform in vivo imaging. This system’s special feature is the elevated body which can move in X, Y, and Z dimensions: it offers plenty of space under the objective for free and easy positioning of the sample. This feature supports functional behavioral studies of model organisms with different weights and sizes, from flies to even non-human primates, while they are moving in a virtual-reality environment. The microscopes can be assembled using galvanometric scanner supporting flexible ROI scanning and resonant scanner supporting fast frame and volume scanning possibilities. Many optional modules are available to the micrsocopes enabling the scientists to perform optogenetics and other studies in larger animals even during behavior.

Femtonics Gramophone
Femtonics Gramophone is an affordable behavior studying system which enables head-fixed but free-to-move rodents to enter a virtual reality space. Showing visual stimuli such as predefined patterns or customizable linear mazes on a monitor that change in accordance of the mouse’s movement on the rotating disk, the Gramophone and the control software create a virtual reality where the animal can navigate itself by moving the disk. The spinning speed of the disk is recorded in a triggered manner. The behavior response and the two-photon Ca2+ signals can be recorded simultaneously and aligned to each other.

Phenosys virtual reality system
We offer VR systems for investigating cognition, navigation, learning, memory, operant conditioning, etc.. Phenosys JetBall-TFT consists of a TFT surround monitoring system focusing on 200° around the animal, and a spherical treadmill which make unobscured field or maze designs possible. This device can be coupled with optional operant devices, and allows a restrained animal to navigate in virtual space.

Neurotar virtual reality system
Neurotar Mobile HomeCage provides a real and familiar moving VR environment. A head-fixed, awake rodent walks freely on a flat-floored, air-lifted cage that moves according to the animal’s locomotion, while exploring and navigating during in vivo recordings and imaging experiments.

Head holders for rodents

Head holder stands and head plates fix the rodent’s head in various positions, adapted to the conditions and enabling precise measurements in the brain, the eye and other part of the head. Three types of head holders are available with different dimensions for surgery, studying of anesthetized rodents behaving animal models moving in VR systems.

Behavioral experiment control

Bpod is an open-source behavior-recording system and real-time environment controller for rodent experiments. Using high-level programming environments (MATLAB/Python), it provides a low-latency closed-loop link between behavioral events, stimulus delivery, and stimulation. Using its built-in liquid reward delivery system, it can be used to power go/no-go discrimination, two alternative forced choice, and CS/US behavioral paradigms. Bpod data acquisition is fully synchronized with the microscope, and the behavioral events can be precisely aligned to the recording of Ca2+ transients.

Software-controlled triggering of stimuli

Control software of Femtonics microscopes
Different forms of stimulation can be triggered or driven directly using the analog and digital output signals of the microscope, planned and controlled from the measurement control software. Visual, auditory, tactile, whisker or odor stimuli can be generated this way. The Stim Visual software module of the control software enables videos or images for visual stimulus to be loaded and played sequentially, and the stimuli synchronized with the evoked neural responses.