Calcium imaging

To measure changes in Ca2+-levels is a powerful method for monitoring the activity of many cells in the brain. Calcium-indicators such as the OGB-1 fluorescent dye or the GCaMP fluorescent protein family respond to the binding of Ca2+-ions by changing their fluorescence properties. The fast frame scanning speed of FemtoSmart Resonant allows following rapid changes in neurons and the neuropil.

Time-lapse imaging

While two-photon excitation ensures deep penetration and fine spatial resolution, the high frame scanning rate of the resonant scanner provides high temporal resolution. This feature means that the microscope is suitable for measuring rapid events in living cells, neuronal networks, or other circuits. Video shows in vivo neuronal activity from visual cortex of a GCaMP6 injected mouse.

Long-term measurements

The high frame scanning rate combined with an unlimited video streaming support long-term studies such as following learning processes, memory retrieval, associative learning, development of model organisms, etc. The video shows an early stage of the development of a zebrafish embryo, whose ontogenesis was followed and recorded over a day from the low cell state.


Photo stimulation
Full-field illumination from an LED light source enables cell populations to be stimulated in different locations of a specimen while the resonant scanner simultaneously images the evoked signals. The selective stimulation of the cells can be ensured by targeted expression of photosensitive molecules such as channelrhodopsin or halorhodopsin (optogenetics).